Rehabilitation for Rotator Cuff Injury
The rotator cuff is the thick band of muscles and associated tendons that cover the top of the upper arm and hold in it place, providing support and stability to the shoulder joint. The rotator cuff also allows for a full range of motion while keeping the ball of the arm bone in the shoulder socket. These tendons can become partially or completely torn as a result of a rotator cuff tear or injury. A rotator cuff tear often occurs as a result of overuse of the muscles over a long period of time. This condition is more common in individuals over the age of 40 as well as in athletes or those who practice repetitive lifting or arm movement in their occupation. A rotator cuff injury may also occur as a result of a traumatic injury.
Treatment varies and may include conservative treatments such as rest, ice and physical therapy, while severe cases may require surgery for repair. Although the methods used to treat rotary cuff injuries may vary, rehabilitation is always necessary after the initial treatment, to restore full movement and mobility to the arm and shoulder and help the patient return to all usual activities.
Nonsurgical Rehabilitation for Rotator Cuff Injury
In some cases, rotator cuff tears can be treated through nonsurgical methods that focus on relieving pain and restoring function to the shoulder. These may include rest, use of a sling, anti-inflammatory medication, steroid injections and physical therapy. Physical therapy exercises focus on improving the strength and control of the rotator cuff muscles and the muscles around the shoulder blade. Treatment may include:
- Muscle strengthening exercises
- Gradual weight-bearing activities
- Range of motion exercises
The physical therapist may also make suggestions and create exercises for improving posture and shoulder alignment.
Rehabilitation After Rotator Cuff Surgery
In most cases, surgery will be recommended for tears that cause severe pain or that do not respond to more conservative treatments. The type of surgery performed depends on the size and location of the tear, but often involves trimming torn edges or suturing the tendon back together. Physical therapy often begins shortly after surgery to help restore strength and movement and allow patients to gradually resume their regular activities. Initial physical therapy treatments may include ice, electrical stimulation and massage, to help control pain and swelling. As the healing begins, muscle-stengthening exercises and range of motion exercises may be used to increase movement and mobility.
Rotator cuff repair surgery is usually successful in relieving shoulder pain, although full strength cannot always be restored. It is important for patients to commit to their physical therapy program in order to achieve the most effective surgical results. After surgery, physical therapy may be necessary for up to 4 months and full recovery may take up to 6 months.